given adequate answer to the Ghazali’s accusations and claims, explained his mistakes and errors and has defended with quite argumentative and demonstrative method from philosophical foundations.
”Incoherence” (Tahäfat) means contradiction and making contradictory statements and “the Incoherence of the philosophers” (Tahäfat Al-Falasafe) means making contradictory statement by philosophers. The English translation of “the Incoherence of the Incoherence” (Tahäfat Al-Tahafat) book which also Ven Den Berg” translated it to the “irrelevant of the irrelevant” shows that he consider the “incoherence” (Tahäfat) in the meaning of contradiction. He says that “incoherence” (Tahäfat) means contradiction in viewpoint and inharmonic and discontinuity between them. By the translator’s viewpoint, this viewpoint is closer to the book’s content and its subject than the other viewpoints, because the Ghazali’s purpose also in the book of “The Incoherence of the philosophers” (Tahäfat Al-Faläsefah) is not the philosophers (although the book’s name is “The Incoherence of philosophers), but he pays more attention to the lack relevancy and coherency of their philosophical subjects and lack of inherence between logical preliminaries and their results. (the end of Van Den Berg’s words).
In this book Ghazäli points to the philosophers which their importance and their exactness are not denied by anybody in Islam world. He calls pseudo-philosophers with humiliation the famous men such as: Socrates, Plato, Galen and specially Aristotle among the Greek and Avicenna and Farabi among the Muslims and tries to reveal their contradictory statements in 20 cases. It should be said that Ghazali used the at most cruelty about philosophy and philosophers in choosing the word of “the Incoherence” (Tahafat) -which has been used as the meaning of contradiction-. But the purpose of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) in naming this book to the “the incoherence of the inherence” (Tahafat Al-Tahafat) has been that he consider incorrect the contradictions which has been stated by Ghazali and consider the Ghazali’s thoughts contradictory with origin. Explaining the Ghazali’s contradictions in the book of “the incoherence of the philosophers” (Tahafat Al-Falasefeh) has been his intention in this naming and do not mean to the Ghazali and his general beliefs. For this reason his purpose about “the incoherence of the incoherence” means “The incoherence of Ghazali’s book called the Incoherence of the philosophers), which briefly has been called “the incoherence of the incoherence” (Tahafat Al-Tahafat).
The author’s brief biography:
Abu Al-Valid Mohammad the son of Ahmad Ibn Rushd, famous to Ibn Rushd was born in Cordoba one of the thought and science centers in Spain in 1126A.D./530A.H. He was trained in a family which was the cradle of science and “Sagacity” (the state of being learned in jurisprudence). His father and his father’s ancestor, both of them, were in charge of judge of all judges’ position in Andalusia. In the youth Ibn Rushd learned many sciences of his time and in mathematics, physics, astronomy, logic, philosophy and medicine got master. In 1153A.D. (548A.H.) he went to the Morocco by the invitation of Abdol Mo’men who intended to found the scientific schools, and at that place he wrote a book on General Medicine called “Al-Koliyät” (generalities). As it shows, Ibn Rushd by the Ibn Tufayl’s recommendation in the time of Abu “Yaqub”(Jacob) [the son and successor of Abdol Momen] who was educated and knew the philosophy explained the Aristotle’s words. His most famous book is his commentary on the Aristotle’s metaphysics book. In 1170A.D. (565A.H.) he got the judge of Seville and after two years, returned to Cordoba and took the change of the judge of judges position. After Abu Yaqub’s death in 1184A.D. (580A.H.) his son Abu “Joseph” (yusef) also called Al-Mansur got his successor. At first, he treat Ibn Rushd respectfully who gained high position, but after 10 years due to the public opinion’s pressure and or because of personal animates, Ibn Rushud was accused of heresy and atheism and suddenly lost the favor of caliph, therefore (caliph) ordered to burn his books. Then he with a group of philosophers and scholars was exiled to the Jewish clan, in 50-km of south – east of Cordoba called “Al-Siyäne”. Of course Ibn Rushd later was forgiven by caliph with the intercession of a group of great men of Seville and was invited to the Morocco. He died at the age of 72 in Morocco, in 12.1198A.D. (595.2). After three month his body was carried to the Cordoba and he was buried there.
The book structure:
The 20 issues which Ghazäli by his view has criticized to the philosophers and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) has rejected them can be divided as follows:
1-the God’s connection with the world: including the four subjects of the beginning of the book (the eternity of world” (qedam älam ), the eternity of world and time, God is the agent(maker) and the Creator of the world, the philosophers’ inability on proving the Creator’s existence),
2-the Oneness of God and the philosophers’ inability in proving Him (the fifth issue),
3-the God’s attributes (includes from the six up to twelfth issue),
4-God’s knowledge to the details (the thirteenth issue),
5-the heavenly and natural issues (from the fourteenth up to sixteenth issue),
6-relativity (the seventeenth issue),
7-the human soul (the eighteenth and ninetieth issue),
8-raising the bodies and gathering the spirits (the twenty issue).